Cardiovascular Disease

Clinical Environment

Fellows train in our integrated Frederik Meijer Heart and Vascular Institute, comprised of cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, vascular surgeons, cardiac anesthesiologists and cardiac radiologists. Our cardiovascular medicine division consists of advanced imaging, interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, transplant cardiology, adult congenital heart and structural heart.

Our state-of-the-art facilities at Butterworth Hospital, Fred and Lena Meijer Heart Center, Helen DeVos Children’s Hospital and Lemmen-Holton Cancer Pavilion set the stage for our comprehensive program. Through our strong collaboration with MSU and Van Andel Research Institute, fellows will discover an environment that prepares them for clinical challenges and rewards ahead. Our strong commitment to patient care, education and research has helped us become a leader in cardiovascular care throughout the region.

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As a nationally recognized health care system, Spectrum Health provides high quality clinical care to thousands of patients each year. Here are some of our clinical volumes from FY 2016 (July 1, 2015 to June 30, 2016).

Cath Lab Encounters: 6253
PCI 1758
Diagnostic Catheterizations 4365
Electrophysiology procedures: 2659
Total Ablations 1197
AFIB Ablations 394
Total  Devices 1164
Pacemakers 709
ICDs 455
Cardiothoracic Surgery: 1758
Cardiac Surgery 1388
Thoracic Surgery 370
Left Ventricular Assist Device: 79
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: 189
Heart transplant: 25
Lung transplant: 24
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: 123


In addition to the many procedures listed above, Spectrum Health was one of the first hospitals to introduce the WatchmanTM left atrial appendage closure device. We are also one of 20 locations in the country performing varicose vein treatment with Venaseal technology, and the first Michigan health system to perform Topera 3D Mapping for atrial fibrillation.


The curriculum of the cardiovascular fellowship training program is designed to meet the goals delineated by the American College of Cardiology Task Force for Training in Clinical Cardiology (COCATS) and the ACGME. The 36-month curriculum gives exposure to the essential rotations in general cardiology including:

– 4 months of cardiac catheterization

– 6 months noninvasive imaging

  • Echocardiography
  • Nuclear imaging
  • Cardiac MRI/MRA
  • CTA and peripheral vascular imaging

– 6 months general clinical cardiology

  • Inpatient Cardiology Consultation
  • CCU
  • Exercise testing
  • Rehabilitation
  • ECG interpretation,.

In the third year, fellows can devote more time to advanced training in invasive and noninvasive techniques as well as electives.  The curriculum is designed in such a way to allow fellows enough clinical months, depending on which electives they choose,  to become COCATS level 2 eligible in echocardiography, nuclear imaging, and cardiac diagnostic catheterization.

In addition, one block each year will be devoted to research.  All fellows are required to complete at least one abstract per year and submit it to a national meeting. Ideally each fellow should also submit one manuscript to a peer reviewed journal during their three years of training.

Rotation Schedule

Spectrum Health Cardiology Block Rotation Schedule

Download Block Rotation Schedule


Education has been a long-standing mission of Spectrum Health/Michigan State University and Spectrum Health/Frederik Meijer Heart and Vascular Institute.  Faculty have designed  a dedicated lecture series designed for fellows addressing basic management of all aspects of cardiology specifically geared towards fellows during their first few months of training.  In addition, the faculty have a list of conferences throughout the year  that both fellows, attendings and staff are expected to attend.  These include:

  • Meijer Lecture Series/Cardiology Grand Rounds (monthly)
  • Multidisciplinary Heart Team (weekly)
  • Imaging Conference (weekly)
  • Cardio Cath Conference (weekly)
  • Dr Jovinge Research Academy (monthly)
  • Journal Club (monthly)
  • Morbidity and Mortality Conferences (monthly)
  • ECG Teaching Conference (weekly)
  • Transplant Multidisciplinary Meeting (weekly)
  • LVAD Surgical Selection Meeting (weekly)
  • Heart and Lung Transplant Selection Meeting
  • Interventional Conference (monthly)
  • EP Conference (monthly)
  • CCU Teaching Rounds (daily)
  • Inpatient Rounds (daily)

Cardiovascular Simulation Center

Spectrum Health is opening a cutting-edge, state-of-the-art dedicated cardiovascular simulation center in July 2017. The simulation center will train and educate future physician leaders and staff by utilizing innovative simulation, applied experiential learning, and hands-on technology to improve patient safety and outcomes. By providing medical education in a supportive, controlled environment, clinicians will master key competencies and skills with zero risk to patients.SH_CV Sim Lab_AERIAL 08-05-16 web

The Spectrum Health Cardiovascular Simulation Center features:

  • 2,700 square feet, with a flexible design for education, training and outreach
  • A simulation operating room (OR) to support complex procedures allowing fellows to practice multidisciplinary patient care transitions
  • An OR procedural monitor room that allows the viewing of fellows, residents and staff, and controlling high-fidelity simulation
  • Technology equipment linked for two-way communication between the hybrid and simulation OR
  • A flexible conference space for:
    • Didactics and training
    • Hosting outside partners
    • Viewing into the hybrid and simulation OR utilizing information system equipment
  • A flexible wet lab space for smaller simulation equipment and potential for “wet tissue” training
  • A dedicated study space for residents and fellows to use throughout their training
  • Fellows will be able to partake in simulation of transesophageal echocardiogram, cardiac catherization, pericardiocentesis, temporary pacemakers, central line insertion, and 3-dimensional anatomy exploration

Cardiology Simulators:

  • Simbioinix Angio Mentor Suite Platform
  • Simulab CentraLine Man Trainer
  • Simulab PacerMan System
  • Sectra Education Portal and Table
  • Simbionix U/S Mentor
  • Limbs & Things Arterial Puncture Trainer Limbs & Things Ultrasound Guided Pericardiocentesis Trainer


At the Frederik Meijer Heart & Vascular Institute our cardiology faculty are actively involved in innovative clinical research.  Clinical research is a part of our key strategic vision at Spectrum Health and cardiovascular has an active research portfolio that focuses on industry clinical trials, pre-clinical animal studies and investigator-initiated studies.   We have a large cardiovascular research department which provides support to our physicians, and includes research nurses, coordinators, and assistants; statisticians; budget negotiations and financial analysis; and Q&A.  The Heart and Vascular Institute works in collaboration with numerous institutions across the globe, including the Magdi Yacoub Institute, Van Andel Research Institute, Michigan State University, Grand Valley State University and the DeVos Cardiovascular Research Program.

Research Publications

Here is a short sample of selected publications over the past several years to demonstrate the research focus of some of our faculty:

Jubran A. Rind, John L. Byl, Bennett P. Samuel, Joseph J. Vettukattil, Nagib T. Chalfoun. Cryoballoon ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in the presence of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder device.  Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology, Nov 5, 2016


Shivanshu Madan MD, Purushothaman Muthusamy MD, Katie L. Mowers MD, Darryl A. Elmouchi MD, FHRS, Bohuslav FInta MD, Andre Gauri MD FHRS, Alan K. Woelfel MD, Timothy D. Fritz MD, Alan T. Davis PhD, Nagib T. Chalfoun MD FHRS.  Safety of Anticoagulation with Uninterrupted Warfarin vs Interrupted Dabigatran in Patients Requiring an Implantable Cardiac Device. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy, 2016;6(1):3-9


Madder RD, Puri R, Muller JE, Harnek J, Gotberg M, VanOosterhout S, Chi M, Wohns D, McNamara R, Wolski K, Madden S, Sidharta S, Andrews J, Nicholls SJ, Erlinge D. Confirmation of the intracoronary near-infrared spectroscopy threshold of lipid-rich plaques that underlie ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2016;36:1010-1015


Madder RD, Husaini M, Davis AT, VanOosterhout S, Khan M, Wohns D, McNamara RF, Wolschleger K, Gribar J, Collins JS, Jacoby M, Decker JM, Hendricks M, Sum ST, Madden S, Ware JH, Muller JE. Large lipid-rich coronary plaques detected by near-infrared spectroscopy at non-stented sites in the target artery identify patients likely to experience future major adverse cardiovascular events. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2016; doi:10.1093/ehjci/jev340.


Madder RD, Khan M, Husaini M, Chi M, Dionne S, VanOosterhout S, Borgman A, Collins JS, Jacoby M. Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging of pre-existing coronary artery stents: can near-infrared spectroscopy reliably detect neoatherosclerosis? Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2016;9:e003576.


Shivansu Madan, Purushothaman Muthusamy, Katie L. Mowers, Darryl A. Elmouchi, Bohuslav Finta, Andre J. Gauri, Alan K. Woelfel, Timothy D. Fritz, Alan T. Davis, Nagib T. Chalfoun. “Safety of anticoagulation with uninterrupted warfarin vs. interrupted dabigatran in patients requiring an implantable cardiac device.” Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy. 2016;6(1):3-9.


Colvin M, Sweitzer NK, Albert NM, Krishnamani R, Rich MW, Stough WG, Walsh MN, Westlake Canary CA, Allen LA, Bonnell MR, Carson PE, Chan MC, Dickinson MG, Dries DL, Ewald GA, Fang JC, Hernandez AF, Hershberger RE, Katz SD, Moore S, Rodgers JE, Rogers JG, Vest AR, Whellan DJ, Givertz MM. Heart Failure in Non-Caucasians, Women, and Older Adults: A White Paper on Special Populations From the Heart Failure Society of America Guideline Committee. J Card Fail. 2015 Aug;21(8):674-93.


Bilolikar AN, Goldstein JA, Madder RD, Chinnaiyan KM. Plaque disruption by coronary computed tomographic angiography in stable patients vs. acute coronary syndrome: a feasibility study. European Heart J Cardiovasc Img 2015: Published online before print November 9, 2015.


Boyden TF. The Reply: Shared decision making – the key to cardiovascular risk reduction. American Journal of Medicine. 2015 Oct; 128(10):e75.


Boyden TF, McCoy L, Neely ML, Cavender MA, Dixon S, Joynt KE, Masoudi FA, Peterson E, Rao SV, Gurm HS. A tale of two states: Comparison of PCI case mix in New York and Michigan. American Heart Journal. 2015. Am Heart J. 2015 Dec;170(6):1227-33.


Braun OO, Bico B, Chaudhry U, Wagner H, Koul S, Tydén P, Scherstén F, Jovinge S, Svensson PJ, Gustav Smith J, van der Pals J. Concomitant use of warfarin and ticagrelor as an alternative to triple antithrombotic therapy after an acute coronary syndrome. Thromb Res. 2015; 135:26-30.


Dickinson MG, Meeusen CM, and Maison DL. Management of Hospitalized Patients with Unexpected Cardiac Arrest. In: Goodlin SJ and Rich MW, ed. End-of-Life Care in Cardiovascular Disease. Springer, 2015


Doll JA, Hellkamp A, Thomas L, Ho PM, Kontos MC, Whooley MA, Boyden TF, Peterson ED, Wang TY. Effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation among older patients after acute myocardial infarction. American Heart Journal. 2015 Nov;170(5):855-64


Doll, J. A., Ohman, E. M., Patel, M. R., Milano, C. A., Rogers, J. G., Wohns, D. H., . . . Rao, S.V. (2015). A team-based approach to patients in cardiogenic shock. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.


Fang JC, Ewald GA, Allen LA, Butler J, Westlake Canary CA, Colvin-Adams M, Dickinson MG, Levy P, Stough WG, Sweitzer NK, Teerlink JR, Whellan DJ, Albert NM, Krishnamani R, Rich MW, Walsh MN, Bonnell MR, Carson PE, Chan MC, Dries DL, Hernandez AF, Hershberger RE, Katz SD, Moore S, Rodgers JE, Rogers JG, Vest AR, Givertz MM. Advanced (Stage D) Heart Failure: A Statement from the Heart Failure Society of America Guidelines Committee. J Card Fail. 2015 May 4. pii: S1071-9164.


Karve, A. M., Seth, M., Sharma, M., Lalonde, T., Dixon, S., Wohns, D., & Gurm, H. S. (2015).Contemporary Use of Ticagrelor in Interventional Practice (from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium). American Journal of Cardiology, 1(115), 11th ser., 5021506.


Katz MR, Dickinson MG, Raval NY, Slater JP, Dean DA, Zeevi GR, Horn EM, Salemi A. Outcomes of patients implanted with a left ventricular assist device at nontransplant mechanical circulatory support centers. Am J Cardiol. 2015 May 1;115(9):1254-9.


Kiernan MS, Joseph, SM, Katz, JN, Kilic A, Rich JD, Tallman MP, Van Buren P, Lyons JJ, Bethea B, Eckman P, Gosev I, Lee S, Soleimani B, Takayama H, Patel CB, Uriel N; for the Evolving Mechanical Support Research Group (EMERG) Investigators. Circ Heart Failure 2015;8:629-635.


Madder RD, Husaini M, Davis AT, VanOosterhout S, Harnek J, Gotberg M, Erlinge D. Detection by near-infrared spectroscopy of large lipid cores at culprit sites in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2015;86:1014-1021.


Malik Muhammad Khurram Sher Khan MD, Malik Muhammad Humavun Sher Khan MD, Aaron Tolan MD, Darryl Elmouchi MD FHRS, Carlos E. Tavera MD FACP (2015). “Breast tissue expanders and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: An unusual interaction.” Heart Rhythm Case Reports: (1)4, 167-168.


Mcdonagh, J. R., Seth, M., Lalonde, T. A., Khandewal, A. K., Wohns, D. H., Dixon, S. R., & Gurm, H. S. (2015). Radial PCI and the obesity paradox: Insights from blue cross blue shield of Michigan cardiovascular consortium (BMC2). Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, 87(2), 211-219.


Puri R, Madder RD, Madden SP, Sum ST, Wolski K, Muller JE, Andrews J, King KL, Kataoka Y, Uno K, Kapadia SR, Tuzcu EM, Nissen SE, Virmani R, Maehara A, Mintz GS, Nicholls SJ. Near-infrared spectroscopy enhances intravascular ultrasound assessment of vulnerable coronary plaque. A combined pathological and in vivo study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2015;35:2423-2431.


Su JL, Grainger SJ, Greiner CA, Madden SP, Sum ST, Muller JE, Madder RD. Detection and structural characterization of lipid-core plaques with intravascular NIRS-IVUS imaging. Interventional Cardiology 2015;6:519-535.


Raulf A, Horder H, Tarnawski L, Geisen C, Ottersbach A, Röll W, Jovinge S, Fleischmann BK, Hesse M. Transgenic systems for unequivocal identification of cardiac myocyte nuclei and analysis of cardiomyocyte cell cycle status. Basic Res Cardiol. 2015 May;110;33.


Olaf Bergmann, Sofia Zdunek, Anastasia Felker, Mehran Salehpour, Kanar Alkass, Samuel Bernard, Staffan Sjöström, Mirosława Szewczykowska, Teresa Jackowska, Cris dos Remedios, Torsten Malm, Michaela Andrä, Shira Perl, John Tisdale, Ramadan Jashari, Jens R. Nyengaard, Göran Possert, Stefan Jovinge, Henrik Druid and Jonas Frisén . Dynamics of cell generation and turnover in the human heart.  Cell. 2015 Jun 18;161(7):1566-75.


Laura Tarnawski, Xiaojie Xian, Gustavo Monnerat, Iain Macaulay, Daniela Malan, Sean M. Wu, Bernd K. Fleischmann and Stefan Jovinge.  Integrin based isolation of murine lineage committed cardiomyocytes of atrial, solid myocardial and trabecular myocardial origin.  PLoSOne 2015; 10(8); e135880.


Eric J. Kort, Surender Rajasekaran, and Stefan Jovinge.  Circulating progenitor cells and childhood cardiovascular disease.  Pediatr Cardiol 2015; 37(2):225-231.


Schüssler-Lenz M, Beuneu C, Menezes-Ferreira M, Jekerle V, Bartunek J, Chamuleau S, Celis P, Doevendans P, O’Donovan M, Hill J, Hystad M, Jovinge S, Kyselovič J, Lipnik-Stangelj M, Maciulaitis R, Prasad K, Samuel A, Tenhunen O, Tonn T, Rosano G, Zeiher A, Salmikangas P. Cell-based therapies for cardiac repair: a meeting report on scientific observations and European regulatory viewpoints. Eur J Heart Fail 2015; 18(2):133-141.


Whellan DJ, Goodlin SJ, Dickinson MG, Heidenreich PA, Jaenicke C, Stough WG, Rich MW; Quality of Care Committee, Heart Failure Society of America. End-of-life care in patients with heart failure. J Card Fail. 2014 Feb;20(2):121-34.


Madder RD, Abbas A, Safian R. First-in-man use of intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy in the carotid arteries to characterize atherosclerotic plaque prior to carotid stenting. J Am Coll Cardiol Intvn 2014. Published online.


Erlinge D, Harnek J, Goncalves I, Gotberg M, Muller JE, Madder RD. Coronary liposuction during percutaneous coronary intervention: evidence by near-infrared spectroscopy that aspiration reduces culprit lesion lipid content prior to stent placement. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. Published online Sept 28, 2014.


Crimmins GM, Madder RD, Marinescu V, Safian RD. Validity of estimated glomerular filtration rates for assessment of renal function after renal artery stenting in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol Intvn 2014;7:543-9.


Lopez JJ, Arain SA, Madder R, Parekh N, Shroff AR, Westerhausen D. Techniques and best practices for optical coherence tomography: A practical manual for interventional cardiologists. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 2014. Published online March 2014.


Madder RD, Wohns D, Muller JE. Detection by near-infrared spectroscopy of lipid core plaque at culprit sites in survivors of cardiac arrest. J Invasive Cardiol 2014;26:78-79.


Elmouchi DA, VanOosterhout S, Muthusamy P, Khan M, Puetz C, Davis AT, Brown MD. “Impact of an emergency department-initiated clinical protocol for the evaluation and treatment of atrial fibrillation.” Crit Pathw Cardiol. 2014 Jun;13(2):43-8.


Kawasaki R, Gauri A, Elmouchi D, Duggal M, Bhan A. “Atrio-Esophageal fistula complicating cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.” J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol.2014 Apr 4 (epub ahead of print).


Elmouchi DA, Rosema S, Vanoosterhout SM, Khan M, Davis AT, Gauri AJ, Finta B, Woelfel AK, Chalfoun NT. “Cardiac Perforation and Lead Dislodgement After Implantation of a New MRConditional Pacing Lead: A Single-Center Experience,” Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2014 Jan;37(1):4-10.


Kooiman, J., Seth, M., Wohns, D., Lalonde, T., Rao, S. V., & Gurm, H. S. (2014). Risk of acute kidney injury after percutaneous coronary interventions using radial versus femoral vascular access: Insights from the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium. Circ Cardiovasc Interv, 7(2), 190-198.


Wohns, D., Muthusamy, P., Davis, A. T., Khan, M., Postma, J. K., Williams, E. E., . . . Gregory, D. (2014). Economic and Operational Implications of a Standardized Approach to Hemodynamic Support Therapy Using Percutaneous Cardiac Assist Devices. Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, 9(1), 38-42.


Bergmann O and Jovinge S. Cardiac regeneration in vivo: Mending the heart from within? Stem Cell Res. 2014;13:523-531.


Madder RD, Busman M, Banga S. Plaque characterization to identify patients at high risk of acute complications during PCI. Interventional Cardiology 2013;5:663-672.


Madder RD, Stone GW, Erlinge D, Muller JE. The search for vulnerable plaque – the   pace quickens. Journal of Invasive Cardiology 2013;25(Suppl A):29A-33A.


Madder RD. Observations from intracoronary near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Journal of Invasive Cardiology 2013;25(Suppl A):24A-35A.


Madder RD, Goldstein JA, Madden S, et al. Detection by near-infrared spectroscopy of large lipid core plaques at culprit sites in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol Intvn 2013;6:838-846.


Madder RD, Steinberg DH, Anderson RD. Multimodality Direct Coronary Imaging with Combined Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Intravascular Ultrasound: Initial US Experience. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions. 2013;81:551-7.


Khan MK, Elmouchi D. Ablation of a Resistant Right Atrial Appendage Tachycardia Using a Magnetic Navigation System. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2013 Jan;36(1):e15-8.


Baklanov, D. V., Aluko, A., Wohns, D., Mathias, D. W., Applegate, R. A., Cohen, D. J., & Marso, S. P. (2013). Costs of Transradial Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. JACC:] Cardiovascular Interventions, 6(8), 827-834.


Gurm, H. S., Smith, D., Share, D., Wohns, D., Collins, J., Madala, M., . . . Chetcuti, S. (2013). Impact of Automated Contrast Injector Systems on Contrast Use and Contrast-Associated Complications in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions. JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, 6(4), 399-405.


Kenaan, M., Seth, M., Aronow, H. D., Wohns, D., Share, D., & Gurm, H. S. (2013). The Clinical Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Performed Without Pre-Procedural Aspirin. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 62(22), 2083-2089.


Muthusamy, P., Busman, D. K., Davis, A. T., & Wohns, D. H. (2013). Assessment of clinical outcomes related to early discharge after elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, 81(1), 6-13.


O’neill, W. W., Schreiber, T., Wohns, D. H., Rihal, C., Naidu, S. S., Civitello, A. B., . . . Ohman,  E. M. (2013). The Current Use of Impella 2.5 in Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock: Results from the USpella Registry. Journal of Interventional Cardiology J. Int. Cardiol., 27(1), 1-


Sandhu, A., Seth, M., Dixon, S., Share, D., Wohns, D., Lalonde, T., . . . Gurm, H. S. (2013).  Contemporary Use of Prasugrel in Clinical Practice: Insights From the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 6(3), 293-298.


Sandhu, A., Moscucci, M., Lalonde, T., Share, D., Dixon, S., Wohns, D., . . . Gurm, H. S. (2013). Differences In The Outcome Of Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions At Teaching Versus Non-Teaching Hospitals. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 166(3), 401-408.


Madder RD, Smith J, Dixon SR, Goldstein JA. Composition of target lesions by near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with acute coronary syndrome vs stable angina. Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions 2012; 5:55-61.


Dixon SR, Grines CL, Munir A, Madder RD, Safian RD, Hanzel GS, Pica MC, Goldstein JG. Analysis of target lesion length before coronary artery stenting using angiography and near-infrared spectroscopy versus angiography alone. Am J Cardiol. 2012;109:60-66.


Elmouchi D, Woelfel A. Erosion of an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator. JACC. 2012 Jun12:59(24);e47.


Maini, B., Naidu, S. S., Mulukutla, S., Kleiman, N., Schreiber, T., Wohns, D., . . . O’neill, W. (2012). Real-world use of the Impella 2.5 circulatory support system in complex high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention: The USpella Registry. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, 80(5), 717-725.

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